Logic of English teaches 31 spelling rules. These rules describe where phonograms will say different sounds in English words, what spellings of a sound may be used in different contexts, nine Silent E jobs, how to add suffixes, and other patterns in the spelling of English words.
Logic of English Spelling Rules
The 31 spelling rules taught in Logic of English® curriculum.
Rule 1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y.
Otherwise, C says /k/.
Rule 2 G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or Y.
Otherwise, G says /g/.
Rule 3 English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
Rule 4 A E O U usually say their names at the end of a syllable.
Rule 5 I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable.
Rule 6 When a one-syllable word ends in a single vowel Y, it says /ī/.
Rule 7 Where I and Y may say long /ē/.
7.1 Y says long /ē/ only in an unstressed syllable at the end of a multi-syllable word.
7.2 I may say /ē/ with a silent final E, at the end of a syllable, and at the end of foreign words.
Rule 8 I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ when followed by two consonants.
Rule 9 AY usually spells the sound /ā/ at the end of a base word.
Rule 10 When a word ends with the phonogram A, it says /ä/.
A may also say /ä/ after a W or before an L.
Rule 11 Q always needs a U; therefore, U is not a vowel here.
Rule 12 Silent Final E Rules
12.1 The vowel says its name because of the E.
12.2 English words do not end in V or U.
12.3 The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ because of the E.
12.4 Every syllable must have a written vowel.
12.5 Add an E to keep singular words that end in the letter S from looking plural.
12.6 Add an E to make the word look bigger.
12.7 TH says its voiced sound /TH/ because of the E.
12.8 Add an E to clarify meaning.
12.9 Unseen reason.
Rule 13 Drop the silent final E when adding a vowel suffix only if it is allowed by other spelling rules.
Rule 14 Double the last consonant when adding a vowel suffix to words ending in one vowel followed by one consonant only if the syllable before the suffix is stressed.*
*This is always true for one-syllable words.
Rule 15 Single-vowel Y changes to I when adding any ending, unless the ending begins with I.
Rule 16 Two I’s cannot be next to one another in English words.
Rule 17 TI, CI, and SI are used only at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.
Rule 18 SH spells /sh/ at the beginning of a base word and at the end of the syllable. SH never spells /sh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one, except for the ending -ship.
Rule 19 To make a verb past tense, add the ending -ED unless it is an irregular verb.
Rule 20 -ED, past tense ending, forms another syllable when the base word ends in /d/ or /t/.
Otherwise, -ED says /d/ or /t/.
Rule 21 To make a noun plural, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or changes; then add -ES.
Occasional nouns have no change or an irregular spelling.
Rule 22 To make a verb 3rd person singular, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or changes; then add -ES. Only four verbs are irregular.
Rule 23 Al- is a prefix written with one L when preceding another syllable.
Rule 24 -Ful is a suffix written with one L when added to another syllable.
Rule 25 DGE is used only after a single vowel which says its short (first) sound.
Rule 26 CK is used only after a single vowel which says its short (first) sound.
Rule 27 TCH is used only after a single vowel which does not say its name.
Rule 28 AUGH, EIGH, IGH, OUGH. Phonograms ending in GH are used only at the end of a base word or before the letter T.
The GH is either silent or pronounced /f/.
Rule 29 Z, never S, spells /z/ at the beginning of a base word.
Rule 30 We often double F, L, and S after a single vowel at the end of a base word. Occasionally other letters also are doubled.
Rule 31 Schwa Rules
31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word.
31.2 O may also say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable next to W, TH, M, N, or V.
31.3 AR and OR may say their schwa sound, /er/, in an unstressed syllable.