Yes, students learn a lot about this in Logic of English curriculum!
In Logic of English we focus on vowel types first. This is important because once students understand the vowel types well well, it becomes simple to apply this information to understanding syllable types.
Students learn about different vowel types — open, closed, R-controlled, silent E, multi-letter, etc. — throughout the Logic of English curriculum, in both Foundations and Essentials.
For example, in Foundations B, students learn that A, E, O, U usually say their long sound at the end of a syllable, learn multi-letter vowel phonograms like ee, igh, oi, and oy, learn the R-controlled phonograms er, ar, and or, and learn about vowels saying their long sound with a silent E. In Foundations C, they learn more multi-letter vowel phonograms, learn more silent E rules such as adding an E in apple and table because every syllable must have a written vowel, and learn more R-controlled phonograms such as ir and ur. By the time they finish Foundations, students are comfortable reading words with all syllable types and understood most of the phonics and spelling concepts they will need in order to think more analytically about syllable types in the future.
In Essentials students begin explicitly discussing the concept of vowel types, and the different vowel types they have learned thus far, in lesson 12, and then start thinking about how this affects syllable division in Lesson 14. (Both of these activities are pretty great, by the way -- students use the phonogram tiles to help them think about the different vowel types and notice how they work in words, and the different colors of the tiles and the fact that each multi-letter phonogram has its own tile helps make the different vowel types and the way they relate to syllables visible and tangible in a really cool way). They continue to build on this knowledge and develop a sophisticated and complete understanding of vowel types and syllable types as they progress through the second half of the Essentials curriculum.